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GARRARD 301底座设计制作大全

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发表于 2018-2-24 15:28 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
GARRARD 301 出厂以来都是只有一个盘子没有底座和唱臂。不同的底座对声音的影响区别也是很大,目前主要有多层木、多层木板、大理石等几种底盘。多层桦木板的声音有质感,低频松软;大理石还是铝合金的底座,声音大气,有质感。多层木头介于两者之间,温暖又不缺乏质感和动态,所以从声音的耐听性来说 多层木头应该是301底座的首选。以下找了一些网络玩家的制作心得供参考。
一、多层木 日本玩家用的比较多

1、图纸是一位在日本颇享盛名的老先生设计的,他一辈子的工作就是LP和胆机,对301的确是了如指掌。
2、他的要求是尽量保持传统风格,但重播效果上要再上一层楼。
3、因为批量不大,所以无法安排大型设备生产,只能是小规模的手工制作。
4、外形尺寸是550*410mm,百度是108mm(不含避震脚垫)


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 楼主| 发表于 2018-2-24 15:38 | 显示全部楼层

回想这些年的实践,有一些体会,写出来供大家参考:


1.MDF由于它的各向同性、价廉等特点在音箱上用的很多,但用来制作301401底座容易显得太软,导致声音含混、解析力不足;


2.过分厚重的木质底座虽说可以利用自身的重量抑制转盘大扭矩电动机(相对现代的小电动机设计)转动噪声,但又容易导致声音的鲜活感下降;


3.金属或石材的底座容易导致声音变得过分锐利;


4.弹簧悬挂或支撑应该是一个好的方向,但变数(弹簧的类型、材质、粗细、拉力)很多,需要反复试验;


5.木框+顶板(或者是倒扣的盒子形式)因转盘的电动机位于盒子内部。它的转动噪声会在盒子里产生共鸣而被加强,类似一个喇叭安装在音箱里的效应;


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 楼主| 发表于 2018-2-24 15:46 | 显示全部楼层

试听效果:


搭配了Ortofon RMG-212唱臂+Ortofon Rondo唱头、SME-3012唱臂+Ortofon 90周年SPU唱头进行了试听。


与之前做过的金属、美松板底座做了对比,新底座的优胜之处在于平衡、细节和解析力的提升,低频的宽松和弹性改善上.


自我分析这个新底座的特点:一是采用了铝合金板+多层板+铝合金板的三明治结构,二是整体尺寸适中,三是芬兰桦木版的声学性能不错。

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-2-24 16:12 | 显示全部楼层
It's funny how products long since departed to the great listening room in the  sky are often capable of showing modem, more expensive items more than a thing  or two. Garrard's 301 and 401 idler wheel drive turntables are both prime  examples of the triumph of classic designs.
Born in 1953, the 301 was Garrard's first transcription turntable produced to  play all three existing disc formats: 78 RPM, RCA's new 45 RPM 7" singles and  33-3 RPM 'Long Playing' microgroove discs. Hence the name � three-on-one The 301  was immediately recognized as a reference class instrument.
It was to remain at the top of the market for a decade.
The earliest 301s were  finished in a classy silver-grey hammertone. These early units had a grease  nipple in the ride of the bearing. When the deck was installed this reservoir  was filled up to the limit with lubricant. All you had to do to maintain proper  lubrication of the bearing was to tighten a knurled cap slightly through the  access hole on top of the motor plate, thereby forcing more grease into the  business end of the assembly.
In early 1957 the finish was changed from "hammerite' silver-grey to creamy  white enamel. Later in that same year the bearing assembly was modified to take  oil rather than grease.
Not surprisingly, the  earlier grease bearing fitted units are more sought after on the second hand  market The earliest 301s have a bearing made with a phosphor bronze lining as  well as thrust pad. Later oil-lubricated units have copper-sided bearings. These  have a screw hole on top of the chassis instead of a side mounted grease nipple.  If you are buying a 301 and are unsure of which version you are looking at, the  later oil bearing units are marked "schedule two" on the name plate. Most of the  grease bearings are fitted to decks finished in silver hammertone paint. Only a  few specimens of the cream-coloured version had the "better" bearing.
For years, I did not realize  the difference. A friend of mine exports a lot of 301s to Japan. They go potty  over a grease bearing and will pay him loopy money for one. For years I thought  they were crazy. However, owners of oil bearings need not despair. I personally  can hear very little difference between the two bearings if they are in good  condition.
The next big change occurred  with the introduction of the 401 in 1964. The basic ideas were unchanged, and  the 401 is essentially a 301 in a Saville Row suit The major styling rework was  courtesy of Eric Marshall, who had also styled the more mass market 'Lab 80'.  The 401 echoed the latter quite a bit. Standard 301 production overlapped with  401 production for a couple of years.
Garrard 301/QUAD rig in traditional overly resonant cabinet
Technically, the 401 offered  better magnetic screening. This was mainly because the micro switch was mounted  under the motor plate rather than on top of it as in the 301, although the motor  casing was redesigned to reduce induced hum in the cartridge. The eddy current  brake was more substantial and offered greater variation in speed梛ust over half  a semitone each way father than just under a third of a semitone. A  stroboscopically marked platter which was an option for the 301 came standard on  the 401. And for the first time on a British-made turntable, the 401 had a neon  lamp to illuminate the strobe markings.
Reading a couple of period reviews in Hi-Fi News and Gramophone I get the  impression that the 401 had a bit of a frosty reception. Percy Wilson, reviewing  for Gramophone, did not like the styling, complained that the 301 was no worse  than the 401 as far as hum pick up is concerned with correct mounting of the  arm, and he felt that the 401 offered no overall improvement in performance.
The earliest 401's strobe  lamp does not operate all of the time. You had to hold the pitch knob down to  activate it. Only a handful of decks were like this. A few years later, the neon  lamp changed from the elaborate item mounted under the platter and reflected by  a mirror to a plastic window next to the platter to an ugly, one piece thing  placed in the hole left by the original's window.
Early in the 1970s, cost  cutting really caught hold. The chassis was redesigned. Quality control went out  the window as did the finish. Instead of elegant charcoal metallic, you get flat  brown. Worst of all, the Garrard logo was changed from a superbly cast emblem to  a decidedly low-rent piece of pressed steel. However, these late-model decks  offer good performance, as long as everything is assembled and set up correctly.
At the same time Garrard felt the Japanese pinch. Their budget decks (SF25  anyone?) were knocked out of the sales charts by newcomers such as Pioneer's  ground, breaking PL12D.
The 401 was killed off in  1976. At the same time unscrupulous dealers started flogging smaller, neater  junk such as Linn LP12s. 401s came to be considered a joke. The flat earthers  were about to have their few years of glory.
Eventually Garrard resorted to badge engineered Japanese garbage. Needless to  say they bit the dust in 1982. Quite sad for a company that employed several  thousand workers for most of its existence.
At about this time our  Japanese friends were building strange tube power amplifiers with quaint tubes  like 211s, 845s and 300Bs. A few of them started using older 301s and 401s in  preference to some of the imposing Japanese super decks that were on the market  back then.
Half a dozen companies set  up shop buying unloved Garrard turntables, and other vintage kit on behalf of  shops in Tokyo's 'Akihabara'. A couple of these companies are still at it. One  reckons there are now more 301s in Japan than back in Blighty.
The main reason these decks  were ditched in the trash can was because of incorrect installation. Both decks  are fitted with motors of monster proportions. Forget farty Philips VCR motors  (as fitted to the LPl 2) or even the beefy unit fitted to the TD 124. Garrard  went well over the top. When the 301 was introduced, 78 rpm records were the  norm. This plus the fact that very few pick ups tracked at much less than 10  grams meant that the motor needed to be big.

Garrard 401 motor unit with FR-64 and SPU Gold Reference
The  problem is that it's a wild and untamed thing. It tends to shake the hell out of  the rest of the chassis. Not a problem if your plinth is very heavy and can  'sink' the unwanted energy. Problem was that no one recognized it as a problem  at the time. When the 401 was new, only one company in England offered a  suitably heavy plinth (it was actually made out of slate). In most  installations, the poor old 301 had to make do with plywood or worse.
In short,  the problem with the 301 was a plinth problem and nobody realized it at the  time. The popular 'radiogram' console cabinets of the day were great resonators  for the 301's vibrations. The classy hardbound Garrard instruction manual was  way offtrack as well. The makers recommended a sprung motor board, a recipe for  disaster. A popular plinth was made by S.M.E. that applied the same theory. One  would have thought they knew better.
A solid,  heavy plinth cures 95% of all unwanted motor noise. Half a dozen kitchen table  outfits have recently popped up offering suitable items. Most of them are pretty  good, if a little on the expensive side. Just remember � the more mass you  provide, the more you banish noise.
Another  reason these units throw out so much vibration is due to the eddy current brake  system. This awful device labours the

huge shaded pole motor  slightly, to allow adjustments in turntable speed and to adjust for slight  variations in the size of the idler wheel.
Garrard's pre war turntable,  the 201 (two speed, 78 rpm and 80 rpm), was even harder on the motor. This  system used a centrifugal governor working against a felt pad. It's no wonder  the motors are always burnt out on pre WWII radiograms.
Anyway, back to the eddy  current brake. Through a series of levers, turning the pitch control knob slides  a magnet over an alloy disc fitted to the shaft of the motor. With the knob  turned fully counter clockwise the magnet is positioned over the disc and slows  the poor old motor down, resulting in the deck running 2 1/2% slow (just 1 1/2%  for the 301). Turning the knob clockwise positions the magnet off the disc,  allowing the motor to run at its normal mains electric frequency. 2 1/2% fast of  course! Normal operation is with the brake half applied. And that is the  problem, the brake is always, in operation.
To make matters worse, on  the last 401s the alloy disc was very badly positioned, and tended to oscillate  on its axis. The nearer the magnet to the disc, the more it labours the motor  and slows it down. The further away, the less the effect. Now imagine our poor  motor having the above applied 50 or 60 times a second. You have to bear this to  believe how bad it is.
The 301 has a slimmer disc  which is easily dented in transit if someone forgets to tighten the transit  clamp. On the plus side, the magnet itself is not positioned over the disc.  Instead, two 'arms' are positioned on either side of the disc. These connect to  the magnet and allow the eddy currents to be 'steered'. This system is an  advantage over the 401 because the disc is within a field between the two arms,  and thus the speed is not affected as much.
A simple tweak is to reduce  the voltage to the motor � 20% is about the right reduction. There are two ways  of doing this: using a transformer or by wiring a light bulb in series with the  motor. On UK supplies a 40 or 60 watt light bulb gave best results. Once you  have a bulb socket wired up it is easy to try different wattage bulbs. Remember  the lower the wattage the higher the resistance and the less voltage the motor  gets. Therefore, the less noise the brute puts out.

Loosening the wiring harness from the 401 motor can reduce rumble
A major upgrade is to remove  the eddy current brake completely and fit a dedicated variable frequency power  supply. The problem is that there are not too many power supplies capable of  supplying on 80-90 volt sine wave variable between 45 and 60 hz at a power of  over 12 watts. Reducing motor voltage means the deck takes a second or so longer  to reach full speed. Big deal, in practice this is just not that serious an  inconvenience.
One point to watch on all  401s is the power harness. Half a dozen wires hang out of the motor. These go to  the double pole mains switch and the neon lamp at the front Halfway along the  journey to the switch, the wires are secured to the chassis by a link spring.  Since this is too close to the motor, it acts as a path for the energy from the  motor to travel down to shake the rest of the chassis. I usually remove the  spring and simply let the wires dangle.


The main bearing has come in  for a lot of hammer recently. Unless your original one is damaged, leave it  alone. I have tried four different bearing mods and all of them except one  produced more background noise. The other one provided a marginal improvement at  first, but became noisy after a couple of weeks' use. At the moment, I am still  waiting for the guy to return it to me. I think it is all a load of cobblers!  The only bearing mod not tried is by a guy called Shindo.
Apparently he Is a major  guru in the Japanese hi-fi scene. If anyone has any experience of Shindo's 301  mod, let us know the story.
Good lubrication is  important. If the bearing has been neglected, then the copper sides will have  worn quite badly. You can check for this by gently rocking the platter from side  to side. Any play means a new bearing housing, or trying to find someone to  remanufacture yours. It only takes a few minutes to remove the entire shooting  match, so take it out, clean it, check for wear and then rebuild it with a good  oil If your deck is the grease bearing type, the original Garrard stuff seems  about best None of that in stock? Then fill it with Castrol Cl, (chassis  lubrication) grease.
Remember to oil the shaft as  you refit it to the housing. Oil as you go. Never, ever have a good grease  bearing modified.
While you have the bearing  apart check the thrust pad for wear. Note that someone at Garrard chose to  change the shape of the thrust pad from the original flat surface to a convex  shape in the 401. In my opinion, this is not quite as good as the original 301  design. It might be worth considering a modified bearing for your 401 because of  this factor.
Same applies to the motor.  Strip, clean and rebuild applying oil as you go. The motor runs fast and gets  hot. I tried using good quality car engine oil which worked quite well. The best  was a dedicated motor oil designed for VCR motors made by Hitachi. Frankly, even  old 3 in 1 is better than nothing,  so don't lose sleep if you cannot find anything exotic to lube your table with.
The poor old idler wheel  tends to come in for a lot of unfair stick. Everyone blames it for producing  rumble noises. Completely wrong, of course. An idler only needs replacing if it  has developed a flat spot, usually the result of leaving the deck in the on  position while no power is being applied. Just to prove the point, my 401 is on  its original idler! A couple of drops of oil on the idler bearing helps keep it  sweet.
One subtle difference between the two decks is the shape of the platter. On the  301 it is totally flat The 401 platter was designed together with its mat to  have a "hollow" in the centre, while the edge of the mat is very slightly  undersized.
Records are supposed to be  'dish' shaped. That is, the outer edge and centre are raised compared to the  middle where the grooves are. This is still recommended by the E.E.C. Most modem  decks have a dish shaped mat or platter. The problem is not all record  manufacturers follow standard practice. If you go through your record collection  it will more than likely be a fifty-fifty split.
After exhaustive listening  tests and half a brewery of beer consumed, I settled for the 'flat' platter as  the best option. To be truthful, mine is a little more complicated than that.
Mats serve two functions. One is to dampen out platter resonances, and to  protect the record from trapped dirt Some may argue that it serves to 'couple'  the record and platter together. Personally, I think the latter is horse shit
I tried all sorts of things  to stop platter resonances. Slightly filling the underside with shellac, plaster  of Paris, concrete, blu-tak, plasticine. None of them worked very well, although  they did help a bit After deciding several years ago that most mats are designed  to smear dynamics and take the edge off detail, I wondered how I could do  without it.
By pore accident a glass  platter was popped on top of a 401's bare metal platter. Rapping them with my  knuckles produced very little noise. The two materials had damped each other out  So that is what I now use. A slim glass platter on top of the original item. The  glass is easy to keep clean and is flat.
With warped discs a Mitchell clamp holds the ensemble together. Normally the  clamp stays in its box.
All of my listening these days is with an Or-tofon SPU cartridge. Without doubt  one of the most underrated pieces of vintage hi fi. It deserves an article of  its own- One problem with the brute is that it weighs nearly 40 grams! Only one  or two arms can balance it, let alone match its compliance. Personally, 1 cannot  manage without it Every time 1 listen, it sends shivers up my spine. 1 have  tried others, but I'm hooked. Forget drugs � score on SPU, its more mellow.
Contrary to popular belief, Ortofon still makes SPUs. At least two versions are  available in the European market: Original and Gold Reference. Only the Gold  Reference is imported to the UK, although I have sourced the other from Italy  and Germany. This must make it the longest production run of any stereo hi fi  component!
The best am I have tried  with an SPU is a Fidelity Research FR64S. Possibly the first "tweaky1 arm to use  silver wire. (I would love to get hold of the 12" FR66, has anyone ever seen  one?)
Arm and cartridge choice is  not critical on either of the Garrards. Just make sure your arm matches your  cartridge. Since they offer totally uncoloured sound and have no suspension  system to upset, virtually anything goes.
When set up correctly, with  a decent high mass plinth, and a good arm and cartridge, I know of no deck that  conveys such speed and authority. On upbeat rock music everything is in control.  Bass notes seem so much tighter than any belt-driven deck I have ever heard.  With classical you appreciate the deck's totally silent background; nothing is  added, and nothing taken away. Ella never sounded so good (except live at Albert  Hall).
Quite a lot of manufacturers  use vintage Garrards. 401 users include Glen Croft (Croft Acoustics), Ok Moller  (Copland), and Yoshiaki Sugano (Koetsu). Even Tim de Paravicini of famed  Esoteric Audio Research uses 301.
With Dr. Digital now  peddling even worse new medicine in the form of DCC and minidisc, you should  rescue an old Garrard before it is too late. You owe it to yourself.
  
SOUND  PRACTICES - Spring 1994
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